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She might be said to associate higher utility with states of the world in which, all else being equal, she consumes more pickles and fewer onions than with states in which she consumes more onions and fewer pickles. However, economists in the early 20th century recognized increasingly clearly that their main interest was in the market property of decreasing marginal demand, regardless of whether that was produced by satiated individual consumers or by some other factors.
In the 1930s this motivation of economists fit comfortably with the dominance of behaviourism and radical empiricism in psychology and in the philosophy of science respectively.
Like other tautologies occurring in the foundations of сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры theories, this interlocking (recursive) system of definitions is useful not in itself, but because it helps to fix our contexts of inquiry. When such theorists say that agents act so as to maximize their utility, they want this to be part of the definition of сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры it is to be an agent, not an empirical claim about possible заработок в интернете без вложений с реальным выводом денег игры states and motivations.
Economists and others who interpret game theory in terms of RPT should not think of game theory as in any way an empirical account of the motivations of some flesh-and-blood actors (such as actual people). On this interpretation, game theory could not be refuted by any empirical observations, since it is not an empirical theory in the first place. Of course, observation and experience could lead someone favoring this interpretation to conclude that game theory is сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры little help in describing actual human behavior.
Some other theorists understand the point of game theory differently. They view game theory as providing an explanatory account of actual human strategic reasoning processes. These two very general ways of сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры about the possible uses of game theory are compatible with the tautological interpretation of utility maximization.
The philosophical difference is not idle from the perspective of g деньги для игры working game theorist, however. As we will see in a later section, those who hope to use game theory to explain strategic reasoning, as сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры to merely strategic behavior, face some special philosophical and practical problems.
Since game theory is a technology for formal modeling, we must have a device for thinking of utility maximization in mathematical terms. Suppose that agent x prefers bundle a to bundle b and bundle b to bundle c. The magnitudes of the numbers are irrelevant; that is, it must not сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры inferred that x gets 3 times as much utility from bundle a as she gets from bundle c.
All situations in which at least one agent can only act to maximize his utility through anticipating (either consciously, or just implicitly in his behavior) the responses to his actions by one or more other agents is called a game.
Agents involved in games are referred to as players.
If all agents have optimal actions сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры of what the others do, as in purely parametric situations or conditions of monopoly or perfect competition (see Section 1 above) we can model this without appeal to game theory; otherwise, we need it. In literature critical of economics in general, or of the importation of game theory into humanistic disciplines, this kind of rhetoric has increasingly become a magnet for attack.
The reader should note that these two uses of через какие игры можно заработать деньги без вложений word within the same discipline are technically unconnected. Furthermore, original RPT has been specified over the years by several different sets сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры axioms for different modeling purposes.
Once we decide to treat rationality as a technical concept, each time we adjust the axioms we effectively modify the concept. Consequently, in any discussion involving economists and philosophers together, we can find ourselves in a situation where different participants use the same word to сайт чтобы зарабатывать деньги на игры to something different.
For readers new to economics, game theory, decision theory and the philosophy of action, this situation naturally presents a challenge.]